The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans during the middle ages, and also known as the German-Roman Emperor since the early modern period, was the supreme head of state and ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. The family provided two Holy Roman Emperors: Louis IV (1314–1347) and Charles VII (1742–1745), both members of the Bavarian branch of the family, and one German King with Rupert of the Palatinate (1400–1410), a member of the Palatinate branch. A full armorial of the Wittelsbach family can be found on the French-language Wikipedia at Armorial of the House of Wittelsbach. The Wittelsbach Emperor Louis IV acquired Brandenburg (1323), Tyrol (1342), Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut (1345) for his House but he had also released the Upper Palatinate for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach in 1329. The mansion was named after the Countess' husband, Prince Porcia. [30], This defeat allowed Frederick to take Aachen and Cologne,[30] as Otto was forced again to withdraw to his private possessions around Brunswick,[33] and he was deposed in 1215. [9], Or, an eagle sable, membered, beaked and langued gules; overall quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise azure and argent. [10], Per pale fusilly in bend azure and argent, and argent, an eagle gules, armed, beaked and langued or. [27], Otto returned to Germany to deal with the situation, hopeful to salvage something from the looming disaster. Her eldest son succeeded the throne as the next Protestant king to become George I of Great Britain, a descendent of the Houses of Hanover and Wittelsbach. In chief, gules, a cross argent. [25], Such actions infuriated Innocent, and Otto was promptly excommunicated by the pope for this on 18 November 1210. [15], Per pale, I quarterly 1 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules (county palatine of the Rhine), 2 fusilly bendwise azure and argent (Bavaria), 3 argent, a lion azure armed, langued and crowned or (Veldenz), 4 or, a fess chequy of three rows argent and gules (de la Marck), II per fess, the chief tierced in pale, the base per pale: 1, or, a lion sable, armed and langued gules (Juliers), 2 gules, an escutcheon argent, surmounted by an escarbuncle with rays or (Cleves), 3 argent, a lion gules, queue fourchée in saltire, armed, langued and crowned or (Berg); 4 argent, three chevrons gules (Ravensberg), 5 argent, a fess sable. [28] On 5 December 1212, Frederick was elected king for a second time by a majority of the princes. Under the terms of the succession law, a Wittelsbach claim to the throne would have passed on Otto's death in 1867 to his younger brother Luitpold, who was regent of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912; and after him to Ludwig who became king Ludwig III of Bavaria in 1913. Il paraît logique de penser qu'il ajoute l'écu de cette charge sur ses armes. The House of Windsor, the reigning royal house of the British throne, are descendants of Sophia of Hanover, a Wittelsbach Princess and Electress of Hanover. It was the first Duchy held by the Wittelsbach family (until 1180/82). With the treaty of Nymphenburg concluded in July 1741, Charles allied with France and Spain against Austria. After the death of emperor Charles VI in 1740 he claimed the Archduchy of Austria due to his marriage to Maria Amalia of Austria, the niece of Charles VI, and was from 1741 to 1743 as Charles III briefly King of Bohemia. Charles Eugene, Duke of Württemberg was declared to be of full age ahead of time in 1744. [18] Now fully reconciled with Innocent, Otto made preparations to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor. His heart was separately buried in the Shrine of Our Lady of Altötting. [24] After his consecration by the pope, he promised to restore the lands bequeathed to the church by the countess Matilda of Tuscany nearly a century before, and not to move against Frederick, King of Sicily. [11][12][13], Shortly after the coronation most of Charles' territories were overrun by the Austrians, and Bavaria was occupied by the troops of Maria Theresa. The Counts of Scheyern left Scheyern Castle (constructed around 940) in 1119 for Wittelsbach Castle and the former was given to monks to establish Scheyern Abbey. At the time there were two surviving branches of the Wittelsbach family: Palatinate-Zweibrücken (headed by Maximilian Joseph) and Palatinate-Birkenfeld (headed by Count Palatine William). On Duke Albert's death in 1404, he was succeeded in the Netherlands by his eldest son, William. Charles Albert was mocked as an emperor who neither controlled his own realm, nor was in effective control of the empire itself, though the institution of the Holy Roman Emperor had largely become symbolic in nature and powerless by that time. The Wittelsbach dynasty ruled the German territories of Bavaria from 1180 to 1918 and the Electorate of the Palatinate from 1214 until 1805; in 1815 the latter territory was partly incorporated as Rhine Palatinate into Bavaria, which Napoleon elevated to a kingdom in 1806. Zur Interimsregierung der bayerischen Kurfürstin Therese Kunigunde (1704/05)", "Mit uns muss man rechnen, 200 Jahre Bayerischer Oberster Rechnungshof, Die Zerrüttung der Staatsfinanzen in Bayern im 18. [2] Otto himself also seemed willing to grant any demands that Innocent would make. [30], The support that Philip II of France was giving to Frederick forced King John of England to throw his weight behind his nephew Otto. [17], At the same time, Innocent encouraged the cities in Tuscany to form a league, called the League of San Genesio, against imperial interests in Italy. Charles was a member of the House of Wittelsbach, thus his reign as Holy Roman Emperor marked the end of three centuries of uninterrupted Habsburg imperial rule. After the extinction of the Bavarian branch in 1777, a succession dispute and the brief War of the Bavarian Succession, the Palatinate-Sulzbach branch under Elector Charles Theodore succeeded also in Bavaria. [34] Absolved from his excommunication, he died of disease, at Harzburg castle on 19 May 1218, requesting that he be mortally expiated in atonement of his sins. [7], In 1726, after his father had died, Charles became Duke of Bavaria and thus one of the Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire and also inherited a debt of 26 Million fl. Many women in the family are known as Elisabeth of Bavaria. With the death of Charles' son Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria the Bavarian branch died out in 1777. [7] Still, he probably visited Yorkshire in 1191,[6] and he continued to claim the revenues of the earldom after becoming king of Germany, although he never secured them.